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English Verb System in 2 pages

Page history last edited by Bonny Hart 8 years, 7 months ago

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Reference

To print/edit

English Verb System in Two pages.doc

 



X-Words in English have 5 jobs

  1. 1.       They shift to ask questions. (She can hear you now.   -->  Can she hear you now?)
  2. 2.       They make negatives (add not or n’t after the X-Word)
  3. 3.       They help us find the subject  (everything in  front of the X-word is the subject)
  4. 4.       They add meaning.  (I might/ I can/ I should/ May I) (possibility, ability, obligation, politeness)
  5. 5.       They add tense. (I will BASE, I have D-T-N, I didn’t BASE)

 

VERB FORMS:  There are 6 forms of every verb (except to be which has 8 forms)

 

With X-Words That Show

With X-Words That Hide

Base

“present participle”

“past participle”

present “s”

“present”

“past”

BASE

ING

D-T-N

V/Xdoes

V/Xdo

V/Xdid

go

going

gone

goes

go

went

want

wanting

wanted

wants

want

wanted

 

X-Word and Verb Form Match-ups

 

X-Word

Always matches with Verb Form:

Example:

do

does

did

 

V/Xdo  à do + BASE

V/Xdoes à does + BASE

V/Xdid à did + BASE

I like music. Do you like music?

Anna likes music. Does Ana like music?

Her parents liked music.

Did your parents like music?

My parents didn’t like classical music.

can

could

will

would

shall

should

ought to

must

might

may

 

 

 

 

+ BASE

 

 

Can you help me?

I can do it.

She can’t do it.

 

You shouldn’t practice too much.

That Paganini piece must be hard!

have

has

had

 

+ D-T-N

She has played the violin for 10 years.

She hasn’t  played the violin for 10 years.

Has she played the violin for 10 years?

am

is

are

was

were

 

+ ING

+ D-T-N to make the PASSIVE tense

+ no verb (description of subject)

 

He’s going to bed now.

This piece was written   by Mozart.

 

I was busy.

 

To be

The ONLY verb in English that has 8 forms;  be, being, and been, can be MIDDLE X-Words. 

 

X  and  BASE

X  and  ING

X  and  D-T-N

X

X

X

be

being

been

am

are

is

was

were



 

Semi-Modals

 

Most semi-modals  use the BASE

be going to

/gonna/

 

+ BASE

I’m going to go home now.

I’m not going to go home now.

intention (future)

have to

/hafta/

+ BASE

I have to study for the test tonight.

She doesn’t have to study.

obligation

have got to

/gotta/

+ BASE

I’ve got to go.   /Gotta go./

(no negative or questions)

obligation

ought to

/awtta/

+ BASE

He ought to practice more.

(negative or questions rare in Am Eng)

obligation

used to

/usta/

+ BASE

She used to live in Seoul.

Negatives and questions always use DID.

 I didn’t use to live in Seoul.

In the past, but not now.

 

 

 

 

Expanded verbs

Sometimes you can have more than one X-Word (usually have or been); the same rules apply:

 

Examples:

                  X      X+BASE   D-T-N

  • ·         He could have been a doctor. (past possibility)

                       /coulda/

 

  • ·         I should have known that it would rain if I forgot my umbrella.  (regret)

                   /shoulda/

 

  • ·         I would have played in Carnegie Hall if I’d had the money and the talent. (hypothetical up to now)

                 /woulda/

                                    X         X             X 

                                                 BASE     D-T-N        ING

  • ·         By June,  you  will    have     been     taking this class for one semester.  (prediction of future completion)                                                                      /willa bin/

 

will always matches with a BASE (have)

                have always matches with a D-T-N  (been)

                                been can match with ING  (taking)

 

                    

       X       BASE   D-T-N    ING

  • ·         I could have been  sitting on the beach right now. Instead  I’m shivering in New York.  (past possibility)              /coulda bin/

 

could always matches with a BASE (have)

                have always matches with D-T-N  (been)

                                been can match ING  (sitting)

 

 

 

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